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How do you say ‘know’ in Chinese?

There are normally two words that you use for ‘know’ in Chinese, depending on the situation:

知道 zhīdào and 认识 rènshi

认识 rènshi normally means to know of a person or a place, or (be able to) recognise

你认识路吗?nǐ rènshi lù ma? Do you know the way?
你认识多少字?Nǐ rènshi duōshao zì? How many characters do you know/recognise?
你们在哪里认识的?Nǐmen zài nǎlǐ rènshi de? How do you know each other?

知道 zhīdào normally means ‘know of’, ‘know about’ or ‘know a fact

我不认识他,但是我知道他
wǒ bù rènshi tā, dànshì wǒ zhīdào tā
I don’t know him, but I know of him.

你知道飞机场怎么走吗?
Nǐ zhīdào fēijīchǎng zěnme zǒu ma?
Do you know how to get to the airport?

我知道一些关于孔子的事
Wǒ zhīdào yīxiē guānyú kǒngzǐ de shì
I know some things about Confucius?